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SYNFUME - Aluminium Phosphide
Safety Precautions
Fumigation Procedures
Storage & Disposal
SYNPHOS - Zinc Phosphide
Safety Precautions
Method of Application
Storage & Disposal
Fumigation Procedures
Vertical silo bins
01. Check ventilation for silo basement and tunnels.
02. Calculate total quantities of tablets or pellets required on the basis of :
  (a) Capacity of commodity to be treated;
  (b) Average filling capacity per hour;
  (c) Total time required to fill each bin;
  (d) Average temperature and humidity inside the bin;
  (e) Type of pests.
03. If using the automatic dispenser, check voltage and current.
04. Tablets  may  be  thrown  by  hand through a manhole or dropped on the conveyor belt at regular intervals as        the commodity is fed into the bin.
05. The working  space  should  be  well-ventilated  during  the  throwing  in  operation. Tightly  close the opening       afterwards.
06. Stick  warning  notices  prominently. Do  not  permit  anyone  to enter the fumigated or neighboring bins during       the period of exposure.
07. Do not transfer the contents to other bins during the fumigation period.
08. After  fumigation  period  is  over,  a  safety  check  with a gas detector is essential before workers enter the       area.
09. Recommended  dosage  3-5  tablets  per  metric  tonne  with  minimum exposure period of 3 days. Aeration: 6       hours.
Conventional storage
01. Foodgrains  in  gunny  bags  are  stacked  properly inside the godown or to a convenient height on a wooden       platform in the open air, as per the prevailing practices.
02. Calculate the total number of tablets required for fumigation of the stock.
03. Spread  non-porus  plastic  sheet  or rubberized sheet above the stock so that it can be pulled down to cover       the sides immediately after distributing the tablets.
04. Distribute  the  tablets  all  over  the  stock preferably by using a tray, so that the residue can be disposed off       easily.
05. Pull down the sheet on all sides & seal the edges air tight by using sand sacks or weights.
06. Post prominent warning notices all around the fumigated area.
07. Periodically check for leakages, if any.
08. After fumigation is complete ventilate the stocks carefully, by partially opening the sheet.
09. Dosage  of  3-5  tablets  per  metric  tonne  with  an  exposure  period  of  3 days is recommended. Aeration :       Minimum of 6 hours.
Flat storage
01. Check the storage for gas tightness and commodity temperature.
02. Use a fumigation probe for better penetration of tablets/ pellets.
03. Calculate  in  advance  total  number  of  tablets/ pellets  required. Divide  them  in equal numbers to number of       probings.
04. Keep doors and windows open during probing operation.
05. Insert  probe  horizontally  at 3 to 4 feet  intervals. Let it sink as deeply as possible into the layer of grain. The       tablets/ pellets are ejected into the grain as the probe is withdrawn.
06. Hot spots (insect attacks confined to small areas) can be similarly treated by the probe method.
07. Keep a gas detector handy to detect the presence of hydrogen phosphide.
08. When  fumigating  grain  stored in different parts of the building, start from the top floor. The time taken for the       entire building should not exceed four hours.
09. Cover  the  grain  mass  with  impervious plastic sheets or tarpaulins immediately after the tablet distribution is       over.
10. Close and seal all doors, windows and hatches.
11. Stick warning notices at all entrances.
12. Evacuate adjoining rooms and buildings of inhabitants and pets during the entire fumigation operation.
13. After the  exposure time, remove sheets or tarpaulins, starting from the inner part of warehouse towards the       door. Operators should wear gas masks.
14. Air the commodity for a few days following fumigation.
15. Dosage  of  3-5  tablets  per  metric  tonne  with  an  exposure  period  of  3 days is recommended. Aeration :       Minimum of 6 hours.
Rail wagons, trucks, ships, barges
01. These  are  treated  in  much  the  same  way  as floor stored commodities. Scatter tablets evenly on the floor       before loading, or put them in trays, or on top of the product, or by probing.
02. Do  not  fumigate  if  commodity  temperature  remains  below  5  degree  celsius (40 F) as  this  could  result       in incomplete kill.
03. Holds in ships should be absolutely gas-tight. All living quarters should be evacuated.
04. Use plastic sheeting for sealing after distributing tablets. Secure it tightly with hooks, weights etc. Cover with       tarpaulin as an added protection against bad weather.
05. Stick warning notices outside.
06. Dosage  of  3-5  tablets  per  metric  tonne  is  recommended. Period  for exposure : 72-96 hours. Aeration : 6       hours.
Tobacco in cases, Bales or Hogheads
01. Keep dosage low, as tobacco is a very sensitive product and the flavour may be impaired.
02. It is advisable to conduct test fumigation with small lots before undertaking a full scale fumigation.
03. Beware  of  electrical equipment, as phosphine reacts adversely to copper compounds, silver and gold. Coat       the switch boxes with liquid paraffin.
04. When  fumigating  stacked  tobacco,  distribute  tablets  on  sheets   around  or  beneath  stacks,  then  cover       completely with gas-tight plastic sheets.
05. Recommended period for exposure: 8-10 days. Aeration: 10-12 hours.
Packed commodities and processed foods
01. Cover the stack of packages with non-porous plastic sheets.
02. Make sure that packed commodities are not in direct contact with the tablets.
03. Place tablets on ground or on trays around the stacks of commodities. Tablets should not touch each other.
04. Seal the edges of plastic sheets tightly with tape. Put weights if necessary.
05. Workers need not vacate the building in case of a secure seal and proper ventilation.
06. Stick warning notices on all four sides of the stacks.
07. After fumigation is over, collect tablet residue and dispose it off as per instructions given.
08. Recommended  dosage  is  around  45 tablets per 1000 cubic feet. Minimum exposure period of 72 hours and       an aeration period of 8-10 hours.
Flour mills and warehouses
01. Seal the enclosure to be fumigated.
02. Calculate  dosage  in  advance  based  on  (a)  volume   of   structure   to  be   fumigated; (b) Temperature  of       commodity; (d) Tightness of structure to be fumigated.
03. Spread  the  tablets  or  pellets  on  trays,  sheets  or  aluminium  foil,  as it is easier later on to collect the dust       residue.
04. Put warning notices on doors immediately after operation.
05. If necessary, notify the fire department and the police before start of operation.
06. Open all doors and windows after exposure time. Water gas mask to enter the enclosure.
07. Check the absence of gas with a gas detector before entering the enclosure.
08. Recommended dosage is 20 tablets per 1000 cubic feet. Period for exposure: one day. Aeration : A minimum       of 6 hours.
    Note: Dosage rates & exposure periods mentioned above are average. In some cases higher or lower dosage may be needed depending on temperature and humidity conditions.
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