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 1.1  Product Name  Aluminium Phosphide
 1.2  Trade Name  SYNFUME
 1.3  Chemical Designation  Metal phosphide
 1.4  Synonyms  Aluminium monophosphide
 1.5  Formula  AlP
 1.6  Label Class  4.3 Packing Group - I
 1.7  Category  Insecticide/Fumigant/Rodenticide
 1.8  CAS Number  20859-73-8
 1.9  UN Number  1397
 1.10  Regulated Identification  Aluminium phosphide
 1.11  Shipping Name  Aluminium Phosphide Formulation
 1.12  Codes/Label  Dangerous when wet and Toxic
 1.13  HAZCHEM Code  NA
 1.14  Hazardous Waste Identification No.  NA
 1.15  Hazardous Ingredients with CAS No.  Phosphine - 7803-51-2
 2.1  Physical State (Gas/liquid/solid)  Solid
 2.2  Appearance  Dark grey to Green
 2.3  Odour.  Garlic-like odour
 2.4  Others (Corrosivity, etc..)  Not corrosive by itself, however phosphine gas released on hydrolysis is highly corrosive  especially to noble metals.
 2.5  Boiling Point  N/A
 2.6  Melting Point  >1000 deg C
 2.7  Vapour Density (air=1)  N/A
 2.8  Specific Gravity (water=1)  2.85
 2.9  Vapour Pressure  N/A
 2.10  Evaporation rate  N/A
 2.11  Solubility in water  Insoluble reacts with water
 2.12  pH  pH of 10% slurry - 7.2
 3.1  Explosion/Flammability  Not flammable by itself. On hydrolysis, it releases phosphine gas, which auto-ignites at 38degC.
 3.2  Flash Point LEL % UEL %  Phosphine - 1.8%
 3.3  Auto ignition  N/A
 3.4  TDG Flammability (Classification)  N/A
 4.1  Stability  Stable when dry. However it decomposes to phosphine on contact with moisture.
 4.2  Impact (Haz. Combustion products)  Phosphine gas is released on hydrolysis or on contact with acids. Phosphine gas is highly toxic  in nature, flammable & corrosive to all noble metals.
 4.3  Static Discharge (Haz. Combustion products)  N/A
 4.4  Reactivity (Conditions to avoid)  Highly reactive with water & acids.
 4.5  Hazardous Polymerization  Nil
 4.6  Incompatibility  Reacts with water, acids. Should not be used in a combination with other chemicals/pesticides.
 5.1  Routes of entry  Inhalation, ingestion.
 5.2  Effects of exposure/symptoms
 Inhalation: Sore throat, cough, shortness of breath, headache, dizziness, nausea & vomiting.
 Skin: Redness with burning sensation.
 Eye: Redness.
 Ingestion: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, headache, convulsions, shock or  collapse, unconsciousness.
 5.3  LD50 (in rat) mg/kg  17.38 mg/kg
 5.4  LC50 (in rat)  Phosphine - 220 mg.h/m3
 5.5  Permissible exposure Limit (PEL)  ppm mg/cu.m
 5.6  Threshold limit value (TLV or ACGIH)  0.3 ppm/8 hours/5 days a week - Phosphine ACGIH - 2 mg/m3
 5.7  Emergency treatment
 (i) Remove patient from exposure, keep at rest. Rescuers should follow full safety  procedures.
 (ii) If the patient is unconscious, place in semi-prone recovery position or otherwise maintain  the airway.
 (iii) If patient is conscious but has difficulty in breathing, treat in a seated position and give  oxygen if available.
 (iv) Allow patient to recline with the legs slightly elevated.
 (v) If breathing stops, immediately ventilate the patient artificially (mouth to mouth/nose or  mechanically with oxygen available).
 (vi) If the heart stops, begin cardiopulmonary resuscitation-CPR.
 (i) Do not give milk, fats, or saline emetics by mouth.
 (ii) Give oxygen if there is respiratory distress.
 (iii) If first aiders are medically authorized to do so, and the patient is conscious, induce  vomiting.
 (iv) After 20 min (or after vomiting), administer activated charcoal (50gm in water by mouth) or  give carbocysteine, if available.
 (v) Obtain medical attention as soon as possible; preferably send immediately to hospital.
 6.1  NEPA Hazard Signal  Dangerous when wet
 6.2  Health  Highly poisonous. Reacts with water, acid & moisture to release toxic phosphine gas.
 6.3  Flammability  Not flammable by itself, however on hydrolysis releases flammable phosphine gas.
 6.4  Stability  Reacts with water, atmospheric moisture and acids.
 6.5  Special  Refer 6.4
   Combustible liquid:  No
   Flammable material:  No
   Pyrophonic Material:  No
   Unstable Material:  No
   Explosive Material:  No
   Water reactivity:  Yes
   Oxidizer:  No
   Organic Peroxide:  Yes
   Sensitizer:  Yes
   Carcinogen:  No
   Mutagen:  No
   Others (Specify):  ----
 7.1  Ventilation: General/Mechanical Local Exhaust  Give adequate ventilation during storage. Maintain airflow with exhaust if required.
 7.2  Protective Equipment  
 7.2.1  Eyes  As found suitable like goggles, masks.
 7.2.2  Respiratory  Supply of fresh air through tube masks.
 7.2.3  Gloves  Synthetic rubber gloves.
 7.2.4  Clothing  Lightweight impervious overalls like cotton apron.
 7.2.5  Others  Use adequate headgear.
 7.3  Precautions  
 7.3.1  Handling & Storage
 Storage to be done in a cool, dry and well-ventilated place.
 Keep under lock and key, away from children and pets.
 Do not allow contact with water, acids, other oxidizing agents or any other liquids.
 Keep away from heat, flame & other flammable chemicals.
 Wash hands thoroughly with soap after handling.
 7.3.2  Others
 Product to be used by Certified Applicators only, with trained assistants.
 Open containers in open air do not use sharp tools.
 Do not fumigate alone.
 Use adequate protective equipment and gas detecting equipments.
 The area to be fumigated should be airtight, do not use in vacuum fumigation.
 Techniques of aeration and exposure to be adequately adhered.
 Do not allow piling of tablets; do not allow the gas concentration to exceed lower flammability  level.
 Proper deactivation process to be followed.
 Warning placards to be displayed.
 Entry to the fumigated area to be allowed only after checking gas concentration.
 8.1  Fire extinguishing media  In case of fire, suffocate flames with sand, use CO2 extinguishers or use dry chemical  extinguishers. DO NOT USE WATER.
 8.2  Special Procedures  Engulf fire with sand or dry powder extinguisher.
 8.3  Unusual Hazards  Reacts with moisture in air to release toxic phosphine gas.
 8.4  Exposure (Inhalation, skin, eye contact, ingestion)
 Inhalation: Remove from contaminated area into fresh air. Give oxygen if conscious, CPR if  patient has suffered cardiac arrest.
 Skin: Remove contamination clothing and wash affected area thoroughly with water.
 Eye: Wash eyes thoroughly in eye wash fountain.
 Ingestion: Induce vomiting if conscious, with 1:5000 potassium permanganate. Give 50 gms of activate carbon in water.
 8.5  Spills
 Do not wash the material in sewer. Use adequate masks & gloves.
 The material can be collected and left in open air, (far from inhabitation) keeping it moist until it  has hydrolysed fully - this process is called `Dry Deactivation'.
 `Wet Deactivation': Deactivating solution is prepared in a drum or a suitable container and the  material collected is added slowly. The deactivation solution can be 2 % or 4 cups of low  sudsing detergent in 30 gallons of water.
 Partly spent material can also be deactivated in this process. Utmost care to be taken while  adding the material. This process should be undertaken in open air, adhering to all the  precautionary measures.
 The deactivated material, dust-water can be disposed off at an approved site.
 The area of spillage should be thoroughly washed with huge quantity of water and should be  aerated. Entry into the area should be allowed only after checking the gas concentration.
 Phosphine gas, if liberated can be slowly let off in the open air. If huge quantities are let off, then  it should be ignited by a suitable burner.
 8.5.1 Steps to be taken  Refer 8.5 given above
 8.5.2  Waste disposal method  Refer 8.5 given above. The used containers should not be kept for re-use. Packaging material  should be destroyed by burying underground or incinerated, at approved sites.
 9.0  ADDITIONAL INFORMATION  Evaluation by WHO - Phosphine & Metal Phosphides are toxic. They have a very limited  distribution in the environment. Proper standards and procedures in their use prevent harmful  effects. No significant global effects on the environment have resulted from the use of  phosphine or phosphides.
 1) International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO) (ICSC:0472).
 2) Phosphine & Metal Phosphides - WHO Environmental Criteria 73.
 3) Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials.
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