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Trogoderma granarium (Kapra Beetle)
     This pest  is generally  only found in large-scale stores where it attacks oilseeds, cereals and sometimes pulses. Losses can be very high. The adults rarely if ever eat and drink and although possessing wings have not been reported to fly. The larvae are very hairy and may be  able to  diapause  when populations become dense. When in diapause it is difficult to kill larvae with  insecticides and fumigants. (Life size 2-3 mm).
Tribolium castaneum (Rust-red flour beetle)
   This is one of the most common pests of strored products & there are many other species of similar appearance. The adults are very attractive  fliers  and  frequently  the first to arrive at a new food source. Larvae and adults feed on a wide range of processed foods or damaged cereals, pulses and oilseeds. The adults secrete bitter-tasting quinones which can contaminate the food. (Life size 2.5 -4.5 mm)
Lasioderma serricorne (Cigarette Beetle)
    This beetle is a serious pest of several high value commodities, e.g. cocoa, tobacco and processed foods. Holes bored through the produce and the pupal cells within it are conspicuous forms of damage. (Life size 2.0-2.5 mm)
Ephestia spp. (Tropical Warehouse Moths)
    Several species of Ephestia  may be  encountered  in  tropical  stores. They attack a wide range of products particularly damaged  or  processed  cereals, dried fruit, nuts, cocoa and even tobacco. Only the larvae feed. They also leave trails of silk  which  can  form  a thick  webbing  over  and  in the stored food. Reconditioning food to remove webbing can be very costly. (Wing span 11-28 mm)
Oryzaephilus spp. (Saw-toothed beetles)
    These  beetles  are  easily  recognised  by  the  six  teeth  at  the  edges  of  the  thorax. They  are  common as pests of damaged or processed  cereal  grains  as well as copra, nuts and dried fruit. Very large populations of adults and immatures may be found on food surfaces  and  although  the  resulting  food  weight  loss may be small, contamination from dead bodies is considerable. (Life size 2.5-3.5 mm)
Psocoptera (Booklice)
    These  small  insects, of which  Liposcelis ssp. are the most  frequent in stores, are sometimes confused with mites. They may be distinguished  easily by their long antennae. Many species are attracted to flour, meal and other cereal products. Some feed on moulds  and  are known to eat insect eggs. Under humid conditions very large populations may develop which contaminate stores by forming a thick foul smelling carpet of dead bodies. (Life size 1-2 mm)
Cryptolestes ssp. (Flat grain beetles)
    There  are  a number  of Cryptolestes  species. In males  the  antennae  may  be almost as long as the body; in females somewhat shorter. These  small  beetles  are  found  on  damaged  and processed cereals, oilseed cake and dried fruit. Under humid conditions very large  populations  develop. The resulting food weight losses may be small but there is considerable contamination by frass and dead bodies. (Life size 1.5-2.0 mm)
Hymenoptera (Parasitic wasps)
    There  are  a  number  of species of parasitic wasp that occur in stores. They  lay  their  eggs  on  immature  stored products pests,  especially  the  larvae  of  moths  and  beetles. The  wasps  then complete their development which usually results in the death  of  the pest. The presence of parasitic wasps is thus beneficial and the occurrence of large numbers an indication of the presence of pests. (Life size 2-4 mm)
Acanthoscelides obtectus (Bean beetle)
    This pest mainly attacks kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) where eggs are laid loosely. Infestation may begin in the field where eggs  are  laid  on the ripening  pods. The  larvae  develop  solely within the bean and so are not normally seen. The adult emerges from a neat 'window' cut in the seed coat. (Life size 3.0-4.5 mm)
Callosobruchus spp. (Pulse beetles)
    These beetles  attack seeds of cowpea and gram (vinga spp.) & other pulses. Eggs are firmly glued to the seed. The larvae develop  solely  within the seed and so are not normally seen. The adult eventually emerges from a neat 'window' cut out of the seed coat. Infestation may begin in the field where eggs are laid on the maturing pods. (Life size 2.0-3.5 mm)
Acanthoscelides obtectus (Bean beetle)
     These weevils attack whole cereal grains and can cause substantial weight losses. Infestation may start in the maturing crop before  harvest. The  female  excavates  holes  in the grain  where  eggs are laid. The hatching larvae develop hidden within the grain. The Maize and Rice Weevils, S. zeamais and S. oryzae, can only be distinguished by microscopical examination. (Life size 2.5 - 4.5 mm)
Prostephanus truncatus (Larger Grain Borer)
    This borer is a serious pest of farm stored maize and cassava. Introduced into Africa from meso-America in the late 1970s it has spread  widely  in  the  continent  and  is  believed  to have doubled the farm losses from storage pests. Preharvest infestation may occur. Adults bore through grain creating large quantities of dust and larvae develop hidden from view within the adult tunnels (Life size 3.0 - 4.5 mm)
Sitotroga cerealella (Angoumois Grain Moth)
     This  moth  attacks  cereal grains in farm and field stores although infestation may start before harvest. The female scatters eggs over  the  grain which is then penetrated by the larvae. Larval development is within the grain but in small grains pupation occurs  between  grains. In large-scale storage, populations of this pest usually die out before the need for pest control (Wing span 10-18 mm)
Rhyzopertha dominica (Lesser Grain Borer)
    Rhyzopertha  dominica  is a serious  pest  of stored cereals especially rough rice, sorghum and wheat, particularly when these products  are  placed  in larger-scale stores. Its general habits are similar to those of Protephanus truncatus but differ significantly in that it is of relatively little temperature in farm stores (Life size 2-3 mm)
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